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acid

there are two measures of acid: titratable acid (TA) and pH. The higher the TA and lower the pH, the more acidic a solution is.  While one can’t taste pH, wines that have higher TA taste more acidic. 

the malic acid in grapes tastes like green apples, gets fermented into lactic acid during malolactic fermentation and tastes like dairy, and when the wrong bugs ferment, their volatile acid compounds smell and taste like vinegar.

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